Failure of electronic components-Passive
Passive element failures
Resistors can fail open or short, alongside their value changing under environmental conditions and outside performance limits. Examples of resistor failures include:
Manufacturing defects causing intermittent problems. For example, improperly crimped caps on carbon or metal resistors can loosen and lose contact, and the resistor-to-cap resistance can change the values of the resistor
Surface-mount resistors delaminating where dissimilar materials join, like between the ceramic substrate and the resistive layer.
Nichrome thin-film resistors in integrated circuits attacked by phosphorus from the passivation glass, corroding them and increasing their resistance.
SMD resistors with silver metallization of contacts suffering open-circuit failure in a sulfur-rich environment, due to buildup of silver sulfide.
Copper dendrites growing from Copper(II) oxide present in some materials (like the layer facilitating adhesion of metallization to a ceramic substrate) and bridging the trimming kerf slot.