Professional Manufactur-design Printed
Often encountered materials:
FR-2 (Flame Retardant 2), phenolic paper or phenolic cotton paper, paper impregnated with a phenol formaldehyde resin. Cheap, common in low-end consumer electronics with single-sided boards. Electrical properties inferior to FR-4. Poor arc resistance. Generally rated to 105 °C. Resin composition varies by supplier.
FR-4 (Flame Retardant 4), a woven fiberglass cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin. Low water absorption (up to about 0.15%), good insulation properties, good arc resistance. Well-proven, properties well understood by manufacturers. Very common, workhorse of the industry. Several grades with somewhat different properties are available. Typically rated to 130 °C. Thin FR-4, about 0.1 mm, can be used for bendable circuitboards. Many different grades exist, with varying parameters; versions are with higher Tg, higher tracking resistance, etc.
Aluminium, or metal core board or insulated metal substrate (IMS), clad with thermally conductive thin dielectric - used for parts requiring significant cooling - power switches, LEDs. Consists of usually single, sometimes double layer thin circuitboard based on e.g. FR-4, laminated on an aluminium sheetmetal, commonly 0.8, 1, 1.5, 2 or 3 mm thick. The thicker laminates sometimes come also with thicker copper metalization.
Flexible substrates - can be a standalone copper-clad foil or can be laminated to a thin stiffener, e.g. 50-130 µm
Kapton, a polyimide foil. Used for flexible printed circuits, in this form common in small form-factor consumer electronics or for flexible interconnects. Resistant to high temperatures.
Pyralux, a polyimide-fluoropolymer composite foil. Copper layer can delaminate during soldering.
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